A M A S S
		I n f o r m a t i o n   L i b r a r y
			Introduction and Index
			  Abdelsalam Heddaya
			  Created:  92.01.02

The American Arab Scientific Society (AMASS) Information Library houses
software and information that potentially enhances the life of Arab
communities anywhere in the world, especially in the Arab World.  This
Information Library (archive, repository) is kindly supported by Boston
University, Computer Sciense Department.  The current librarian is
Abdelsalam Heddaya (heddaya@cs.bu.edu).

For more information about AMASS see the files called
intro-english.txt, intro-arabic.ps, or intro-english.ps.  You can
also write to:

	American Arab Scientific Society
	P.O. Box 541
	Holmdel, NJ 07733, USA.

or send e-mail to:

This document is stored under the names "00_READ_ME, README and INDEX"
in the library.

  *** Please send to (amass-request@cs.bu.edu) a message every time ***
   *** you use this library, or if you want to place some software ***
    *** or information in it.  If no one uses it, we'll close it. ***

File Name

	[Version] Description

	Introduction, index and instructions for use.  This file.
	[3.03, July 1995] Arabic extension to LaTeX, together with its manual
	(read it to learn the capabilities).  Excellent handling of
	transliteration and diacritics.  A great improvement over yarbtex and
	atex.  Also works under plain TeX.  Installation instructions and
	manual are included.  AMASS newsletters (found in directory
	"newsletters") are produced using ArabTeX--take a look.

	The ".tar.Z" version is a Unix compressed tar file, get it in
	binary mode, then use the Unix "uncompress" and "tar xf"
	commands to extract the software.

	The original source, as well as other related material, is:


	Produced by Klaus Lagally (lagally@informatik.uni-stuttgart.de).


	An Arabic font in X windows format.  Use binary mode for FTP.  Was part
	of standard MIT X distribution.  X11/R4 doesn't contain it.  No known
	programs use it!

[Original source]

	[May 1993] Arabic/Latin text editor with a few word-processing
	capabilities.  Muedit can handle documents of size upto

	Requires Apple's Arabic Interface System (AIS), available from

	and from

	Written by S. Kamal Abdali (abdali@netcom.com>.


	Qalam is an Arabic-Latin-Arabic transliteration system between Arabic
	script languages and the Latin script embodied in the ASCII (American
	Standard Code for Information Interchange) character set.  The goal of
	the Qalam system is to transliterate Arabic script languages for
	computer communication by those literate in those languages.

	Qalam is designed by Abdelsalam Heddaya with contributions from Walid
	Hamdy and M. Hashem Sherif.


	Repository for co-operative project announcements.

	Common Lisp program to calculate the Hijri, Hebrew, Gregorian and
	Julian calendars.  Includes definitions of some important events.
	Misses the Coptic calendar.

	Written by Nachum Dershowitz and Edward M. Reingold

	Text file containing the Gregorian dates corresponding to ramaDaan, `yd
	al-fiTr, etc., through the (Gregorian) year 2001 AD.

[Original source]

	Minaret for the Macintosh and the PC, respectively.  Minaret
	calculates Muslim prayer times,  direction, and moon
	phases for the Hijri calendar.

	Written by Kamal Abdali (abdali@netcom.com).


	Documents that describe AMASS.  Purpose, membership rules, activities,
	contact information, and application form are all present.


	Announcements of conferences, exhibitions, and other events.

	Directory of images.  Can be displayed on all machines using
	appropriate image viewers.  The format of each image is encoded in the
	letters that follow the "." in the file name.


	Muslim prayer schedules in TeX format, produced by Minaret 1.3 on the
	Macintosh or praytimer on a Sun-4 Unix computer.  Compressed (i.e., use
	binary mode under FTP).

	Directory that contains the Arabic version of the 
	and two English translations, one by Pickthall and the other
	by Yusuf Ali.  The Arabic is encoded in Macintosh form.  You
	need a Macintosh text editor such as Quill (available here) to
	view it correctly.

	Files with ".gz" extension are Compressed using gzip; use the
	gunzip command to uncompress them.

	Contributed by Mohammad Jamil Sawar (sawar@cbl.leeds.ac.uk) in April


	A portable C program based on Minaret 1.3, which calculates Islamic
	prayer schedules and typesets them in TeX.  It differs from Minaret in
	that it can operate in a batch mode.  That is, you can produce a large
	number of schedules quickly and conveniently.

	This program is in source form, you need access to a C compiler in
	order to install it on any computer.  The ".tar.Z" version is a Unix
	compressed tar file, get it in binary mode, then use the Unix
	"uncompress" and "tar xf" commands to extract the software.

	Written by Kamal Abdali (abdali@udel.edu) (derived by him from his
	Minaret 1.3 for the Mac).

	Although Minaret 1.3 has been tested over the years, praytimer has not
	yet been extensively tested.  Please report discrepancies, *and*
	accuracies to the author.


	Directory of sound files.

	Currently contains the Islamic call to prayer, and a recitation of the
	first  of the , probably by <`abd elbaaSiT `abd

	All are sampled on the Mac at 5.5KHz (i.e., fair quality), and encoded
	in ASCII using Binhex format.  They can be played back by SoundMaster
	or other Macintosh sound utilities.

	Contributed by Abdulkader Khattab (A.KHATTAB@qmw.ac.uk).


	A translation of  in 9 volumes, each in a
	separate file.  Source and translator are known, so I agonized
	about whether to make this edition available, not knowing for
	sure how accurate it is.  Use only with the understanding that
	it may not be a reliable edition.  In particular, do not cite
	it without further corroboration.  If you know of an
	alternative authenticated source, please send its location to


	Information about crescent sighting for the beginning of 
	plus background knowledge on the subject of crescent sightings in

	Written by Mohibullah N. Durrani (mnd@cunixb.cc.columbia.edu), and
	posted to Egypt-net every year.


	[15 October 1994] Compressed postscript article by S. Kamal
	Abdali titled "The Correct Qibla".  Responds to a 1993 book
	suggesting that the direction of the qibla in N. America
	should be southeast, rather than northeast.  Gives an
	excellent introduction for the general reader to the
	astronomical and historical background in calculating the
	direction of the qibla.  Includes specific formulae to carry
	out the computation, as well as references to other sources.

	More current versions are potentially available as:


	Prayer schedule (and <'imsakiyaT>) for Boston, Massachusetts.  The dvi
	file must be transferred in binary mode, and the ps (Postscript) and
	TeX (ArabTeX) files in ASCII mode.  To print dvi you need a filter that
	converts into the language that your printer uses.  To print
	Postscript, your printer's language must be Postscript.

	The ArabTeX file (.tex) can be edited to generate an <'imsaakiyaT> for
	other cities and times.

	Offered courtesy of AMASS.  Prepared by A. Heddaya using praytimer and


	The arabic text of the hymn chanted by Muslims in the morning prayers
	of the two major feasts of Islam.  Given in both arabic script and in
	transliteration, to aid those who cannot read Arabic well.

	Offered courtesy of AMASS, Boston Chapter.  Prepared by A. Heddaya
	using arabtex.


	Copies of AMASS Newsletters in Postscript format.
	In Arabic.  The necessary fonts are included in each file.  Thus the
	newsletters should be printable on any printer that supports
	Postscript, even if it doesn't have the Arabic fonts, and should be
	viewable on the screen by any Postscript previewer.


	List of publishers, organizations and booksellers for Arabic and Farsi
	books on Islam and the Middle East.


	[2.0, December 1992] Islamic Computer Resource Guide.  Listing
	of software, bulletin board systems, and major network
	resources such as electronic mailing lists, forums and
	newsgroups related to discussion of Islamic topics.  The .hqx
	form can be used only on a Macintosh with BinHex and Microsoft
	Word 5.0.

	Compiled by Basil Hashem (hashem@netcom.com).


	Software to announce prayer times, calculate hijri calendar and compute
	correspondences between different calendars.


	Mailing lists related to Middle East (some remotely).


	Hints about obtaining and installing software supporting the use of
	mixed Arabic/Latin script on the Macintosh.  By Abdelsalam Heddaya.


	Reference to a list of Egyptian proverbs.


Instructions for Use by FTP:

0. Every time you use this software library, please send
   (amass-request@cs.bu.edu) a message.  If it falls in disuse, I'll
   discontinue it promptly.  Please send me any software or
   information you'd like to distribute through the AMASS Information

1. Use FTP to connect to "cs-ftp.bu.edu".  For Unix users, just type:

                     ftp cs-ftp.bu.edu

   INDIRECTLY.  To do so, you'll have to read the file titled

2. You will be prompted for a login name.  Use:


3. You will be prompted for a password.  Just type your e-mail
   address.  For example, if I were connecting from Harvard, I'd type:


4. At the FTP prompt, type:

                     cd amass

5. At this point you are accessing the subdirectory that contains 
   the AMASS library.  To know what's in there, just type:

                     ls -l

6. To get a copy of any of file whose name doesn't end with ".Z", type:


   For instance, to get the introductory file, type:

		     get README

7. To get a copy of files that end with ".Z", type:


   before you issue the "get" command.  This tells FTP that all
   subsequent file transfters will be for non-ASCII files.  If you
   want to return to ASCII, then type:


   at the FTP prompt.

8. After copying whatever you want, exit from FTP by typing:


Instructions for Use by e-mail:

It is now possible to obtain copies of files in the American Arab
Scientific Society's Information Library by electronic mail.  Formerly,
you had to have FTP access to the Internet.

I enclose an example message that you can send in order to obtain
files from AMASS SL, as well as more detailed information about the
service.  This capability can be used with other FTP archives, and
comes to you for free supported by DEC's Western Research Lab.

Here's an example message that you can send, followed by a
line-by-line explanation of it.

	To: ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com
	cc: amass-request@cs.bu.edu
	Subject: Get AMASS INDEX

	reply user@host.site.domain
	connect cs-ftp.bu.edu anonymous user@host.site.domain
	chdir amass
	get INDEX
	get arabtex.tar.Z

Following is a line-by-line explanation of the above message.

	To: ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com

This is the address of one ftpmail server; there are others.

	Subject: Get AMASS INDEX

The server ignores the subject.  Use it only for your own benefit.

	reply (user@host.site.domain)

This command specifies the reply address; substitute your own,
retaining the angle brackets.

	connect cs-ftp.bu.edu anonymous user@host.site.domain

This command connects you to the AMASS InfoLib at cs-ftp.bu.edu
(Boston Univ., Comp. Sci. Dept. public server), under the user name
"anonymous" and with your e-mail address as the password.  Again,
substitute your own.

	chdir amass

This specifies the directory that contains AMASS material.


This will cause a listing of the directory contents to be sent to you.

	get INDEX

A copy of the file called INDEX will be retrieved in ASCII mode (i.e.,
simple text).  You'll receive it in a separate message.

	get arabtex.tar.Z

This will cause a copy of arabtex.tar.Z to be retrieved in binary
mode, converted to ASCII using uuencode and broken up into chunks
small enough to be mailed.  You'll receive the chunks one-by-one in
separate messages, and then will have to assemble them and convert
them back to binary.  You'll need a uudecode program in order to do


Ends the session.

You can get more detailed instructions by sending the message:

	To: ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com
	Subject: Tell me more

	reply (usr@host.site.domain)

----------------Copy of help file obtainable from ftpmail@decwrl---------------
>>> $Id: help-text,v 1.4 1992/09/29 01:34:33 vixie Exp vixie $
>>> commands are:

	reply 	set reply addr, since headers are usually wrong
	connect [HOST [USER [PASS]]]  defaults to gatekeeper.dec.com, anonymous
	ascii			files grabbed are printable ascii
	binary			files grabbed are compressed or tar or both
	chdir PLACE		"get" and "ls" commands are relative to PLACE
					(only one CHDIR per ftpmail session,
					and it executes before any LS/DIR/GETs)
	compress		compress binaries using Lempel-Ziv encoding
	compact			compress binaries using Huffman encoding
	uuencode		binary files will be mailed in uuencode format
	btoa			binary files will be mailed in btoa format
	chunksize SIZE		split files into SIZE-byte chunks (def: 64000)
	ls (or dir) PLACE	short (long) directory listing
	index THING		search for THING in ftp server's index
	get FILE		get a file and have it mailed to you
					(max 10 GET's per ftpmail session)
	quit			terminate script, ignore rest of mail message
					(use if you have a .signature or
					 are a VMSMAIL user)

>>> notes:

	-> you should send complaints to the ftpmail-admin address.  our
	   postmaster does not handle ftpmail problems and you can save her
	   the trouble of forwarding your complaints by just mailing them to
	   the right address.  the "ftpmail-request" address is gone; don't
	   use it.

	-> the "index" command depends on the "SITE EXEC INDEX" feature of
	   some ftp servers.  Gatekeeper.dec.com originated this feature,
	   and ftp.uu.net duplicated it (with a format change to the output,
	   naturally).  Wuarchive.wustl.edu also has this feature, though
	   their index seems to be empty.  The source for an ftpd that
	   supports this feature is on Gatekeeper in /pub/DEC/gwtools.

	-> the "Subject:" of your request will be contained in the "Subject:"
	   of all of ftpmail's responses to you regarding that request.  You
	   can therefore use it to "tag" different requests if you have more
	   than one outstanding at any given time.

	-> you must give a "connect" command, default host is
	   gatekeeper.dec.com, default user is anonymous, default
	   password is your mail address.

	-> binary files will not be compressed unless 'compress' or 'compact'
	   command is given; use this if at all possible, it helps a lot.
	   note that many files are already compressed.  if you use any of
	   the binary-file qualifiers (compress, compact, uuencode, btoa)
	   without setting 'binary' first, your session will abort in error.

	-> binary files will always be formatted into printable ASCII
	   with "btoa" or "uuencode" (default is "btoa").  if you don't
	   use the "binary" command, ftpmail will cheerfully try to mail
	   you the binary data, which will absolutely, positively fail.

	-> all retrieved files will be split into chunks and mailed.  the
	   size of the chunk is 64000 characters unless you change it with
	   the "chunksize" command.  CompuServe users will need to set this
	   to 49000.  there is no way to set it higher than 100000, so please
	   don't ask.

	-> if you ask for more than 10 files in a session, you will receive
	   an error message and your entire request will be rejected.

	-> VMS/DOS/Mac versions of uudecode, atob, compress and compact
	   are available, ask your LOCAL wizard about them if you can't
	   locate them (but try gatekeeper.dec.com in /archive/pub/VMS
	   if you're still using a VMS system.)

	-> several mail unsplitters are hiding on gatekeeper.dec.com in
	   /pub/mail/ua/misc/unsplit.  there is one in c, one in perl,
	   and one in VMS DCL.

	-> there is no way to request only certain parts of a file and we
	   do not plan to add one in the near future, so please don't ask.

	-> there is no way to delete things from the queue or to find out
	   the status of things in the queue, and we do not plan to add
	   either feature in the near future, so please don't ask.

>>> examples:

	-> connect to gatekeeper.dec.com and get a root directory listing:

	-> connect to gatekeeper.dec.com and get the README.ftp file:
		get README.ftp

	-> connect to gatekeeper.dec.com and get the gnuemacs sources:
		chdir /pub/GNU
		get emacs-18.58.tar.Z

	-> connect to ftp.uu.net as anonymous and get a root directory list:
		connect ftp.uu.net
		chdir /index/master
		get by-name.Z


Modified: 92.02.03; added sched, sched.tar.Z
Modified: 92.02.05; replaced sched with praytimer (equivalent).
Modified: 92.02.10; added qalam.txt.
Modified: 92.02.10; suspended distribution of arabtex, pending new
		    incompatible version expected in three weeks'
Modified: 92.02.25; added ramadan-boston92.*.
Modified: 92.02.26; Changed the name from "AMASS Anonymous FTP
		    Archive" to "AMASS Software Library".  Edited the
		    entries so that each: (1) briefly describes the
		    software, (2) lists requirements for use, (3)
		    credits the author(s), and (4) calls for comments,
		    bug reports, contributions, etc.
Modified: 92.03.04; Added crescent.txt.
Modified: 92.04.22; Added arabtex v2.01.
Modified: 92.04.27; Added takbyr.
Modified: 92.06.26; Updated arabtex to v2.02.
Modified: 92.06.28; Added islam-guide.txt r1.1b.
Modified: 92.07.02; Renamed minaret-scheds as prayer-scheds.
Modified: 92.08.03; Added the sounds directory.
Modified: 92.08.11; Installed ArabTeX v.2.04.
Modified: 92.08.13; Created the "newsletters" directory.
Modified: 92.08.20; Added krivo.snf.
Modified: 92.08.21; Added arabic-mac.txt.
Modified: 92.09.09; Added first version of AMASS intro* files.
Modified: 92.11.18; Updated arabtex to version 2.05.
Modified: 93.01.19; Added some information files (IslamicTimer and
Modified: 93.04.21; Added quran directory to distribute Arabic text
		    and English translations, and quill.sit.hqx.
Modified: 93.08.12: Added a fresh copy of the  with an
		    associated program to view and search it.
Modified: 93.12.06: Updated ArabTeX to version 3.
Modified: 94.01.26: Consolidated README and INDEX files into one file
		    "00_READ_ME", and added symbolic links to it
		    called README and INDEX.
		    Added ramadan-boston94.ps.
Modified: 94.04.08: Created directory tree, in preparation for
		    eventual creation of a World Wide Web page.
Modified: 94.07.12: Moved to version 3.01 of ArabTeX.
Modified: 94.09.21: Converted ftp address from cs.bu.edu to cs-ftp.bu.edu.
Modified: 94.12.27: Added Co-op and Event directories.
Modified: 94.12.30: Changed the name to "AMASS Information Library",
		    converted Index to HTML, moved Web home to ftp area.
Modified: 95.01.28; Installed ('imsaakiya@ ramaDaan) for 1995.
Modified: 95.02.14; Updated Minaret, included link to source, fixed wrong URL
Modified: 95.02.23; Added bukhari-*.txt.gz.  Copied from Amr Fahmy,
		    who doesn't know its source.
Modified: 96.01.10; added Ramadan/boston-96.*; updated ArabTeX to
		    3.03; installed URL to ArabTeX original material.
                            ..    |    __          |     | |        _
Abdelsalam Heddaya          (]__; | _)___)   _() _\|_;;;_| |  _)_;_(_
heddaya@cs.bu.edu             ..            |                   .